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Style Sheet

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Submitting a manuscript

Submit two or three files: one MS Word file with the text and notes (with citations), and a second MS Word file with the ms title and an abstract of 120–150 words. Short tables and illustrations (images, figures, and the like) may be incorporated into the main manuscript file if they do not make the Word file significantly larger. If the tables are long or the illustrations are numerous or large in size, they should be collected in a single, separate file (tables and illustrations together) and submitted as a PDF file. See further instructions on the HJAS website.


  • Everything—text, notes, and block quotations—must be double-spaced.
  • Do not justify the right margin.
  • Paginate the manuscript but avoid using any other running header or footer.
  • Margins should be at least one inch wide all around. For notes and text, use font size 12. The preferred font is Times New Roman.
  • Do not use automatic hyphenation.
  • Notes should be footnotes for the submission. Citations are provided in notes (citation format is described below). Do not use author-date citation style and do not provide a bibliography.

General style

  • A note of acknowledgment, where necessary, should be as brief as possible and be labeled “Acknowledgments” before note 1. Any acknowledgment note will be removed during the review process; authors of accepted manuscripts may add an acknowledgment note during copyediting.
  • In matters of English-language style, HJAS generally follows the rules set out in the Chicago Manual of Style Online (16th edition) [hereafter CMS] and the spellings in the current online Merriam-Webster Dictionary. However, for East Asian languages, we privilege the following guides over CMS. For Japanese, we use the current Monumenta Nipponica style guide. For Chinese, we use Endymion Wilkinson, Chinese History: A Manual, 4th ed. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015); see especially pp. xvii–xxiii.
  • Authors are encouraged to consult the most recent issues of HJAS for models of current house style.

House style

  • Use American spellings (color, judgment, councilor, adviser).
  • Use a serial comma before “and” in a series, as in: China, Japan, and Korea.
  • Use present tense to refer to the contents of a written work: “In his sixteenth-century report, the author says…” (per CMS 5.123, category 2: “timeless facts, such as… works of the past that are still extant or enduring”).
  • Do not begin or end a quotation with ellipses points.
  • Observe the distinction between the nonrestrictive “which” and restrictive “that,” as well as between “while” meaning “during the time when” and “although” (per CMS 5.220 under “that; which” and “while”).  
  • Put a noun after “this” and “these” to specify the antecedent (cf. CMS 5.27).
  • Do not speak of oneself in the third person and avoid passive-voice constructions (“according to the argument of the present author”); instead, use first person and active voice (“I argue”). Note that HJAS house style prefers “I argue” over “this article argues.”
  • Do not use “e.g.,” “etc.,” or “i.e.”; instead, use phrases such as “for example,” “and the like,” or “in other words.”
  • Abbreviate inclusive numbers (except for years), using an en-dash (–) for the range:
    • If the first number in the sequence is 1–99, 100, or multiples of 100, then use all digits for the second number in the sequence (such as, 3–10, 96–117, 1100–1113).
    • If the first number in the sequence is 101–9, 201–9, and so on, use the changed part only for the ending number in the sequence (for example, 101–8, 808–33).
    • If the first number in the sequence is 110–99, 210–88, and so forth, then use two or more digits unless more digits are needed to include all changed parts (for instance, 321–28, 498–532, 1087–89, 1496–500, 12991–3001). See CMS 9.60.
  • For year sequences, use all digits: 1275–1286, 220 BCE–200 CE, 220–210 BCE.
  • Spell out the numbers one through one hundred, as well as all round numbers, except in the following situations: when combined with “percent,” when numbers appear frequently within a paragraph, and when citing sources. Thus: “twentieth century” but “chapter 3.”
  • Use an en-dash, not a hyphen, to mean “to” (per CMS 6.78), as in “Ming–Qing transition.”
  • Do not number headings and subheads.

Romanization of Asian languages

  • Italicize Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and other foreign-language terms, words, or phrases that have not been anglicized (except for proper names and place names) each time that they occur.
  • Following convention, the Journal will accept variation in the romanization of individual personal names and prefers the use of such well-established exceptions as “Taipei” and “Seoul.” (However, the names of emperors should follow regional style guides.)
    • Note that HJAS uses Asian order for personal names (surname first) when referring to authors of works written in Chinese, Japanese, or Korean; but English order for personal names (surname last) when referring to authors of English-language materials.
    • Capitalize each word of English translations of Chinese institutions but not their pinyin names (per Wilkinson, p. xviii). Thus, 华东师范大学 is East China Normal University but Huadong shifan daxue. Also, when two proper names appear one after another, the second proper name starts with a capital letter. Thus the title文淵閣四庫全書 is Wenyuan ge Siku quanshu (the Wenyuan ge edition of the Siku quan shu) and the Institute of History and Philology at the Academia Sinica is Zhongyang yanjiuyuan Lishi yuyan yanjiusuo中央研究院歷史語言研究所.
  • For Chinese, use pinyin throughout the manuscript, following standard rules. Please note that hyphenation is rarely used in pinyin and that the pinyin for a single concept is spelled without spacing even if it uses two or more characters: quanguo 全国, yanjiushengyuan 研究生院.
  • For Japanese, use the modified Hepburn system of romanization in Kenkyūsha’s New Japanese-English Dictionary, with the following qualifications.
    • Use macrons to represent long vowels, except for fully anglicized words (shogun, daimyo, and so on) and the names of Japan’s main islands and principal cities (Tokyo, Kyoto, Osaka, Hokkaido, Kyushu, Honshu; but Kantō, Tōhoku). Note that since Ryukyu is a fully anglicized word, it takes no macrons (for the islands, language, people, or kingdom). However, a long “i” should be romanized with a double “i” rather than a macron: kōhii, not kōhī.
    • Use “n” rather than “m” to replace the Japanese syllable “ん/ン.” For newspapers, write “shinbun,” not “shimbun.”
    • Only include an apostrophe after an “n” when the “n” is followed by a vowel that is a separate syllable, as in “Koizumi Jun’ichirō.” Do not use apostrophes otherwise.
  • For Korean, use the McCune-Reischauer romanization consistently, except for fully anglicized words and place names (such as “kimchi” and “Pyongyang”).
  • For Manchu, use the Möllendorff system in P. G. von Möllendorff, A Manchu Grammar (Shanghai: American Presbyterian Mission Press, 1892), and in Jerry Norman, A Comprehensive Manchu-English Dictionary (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2013).
  • For Mongolian, use the system found in A. Mostaert, “Index des mots du Mongol écrit et du Mongol ancien,” in Dictionnaire Ordos: A-Ž, tables alphabétiques (New York: Johnson Reprint Corporation, 1968), pp. 769–809, and in Nicholas Poppe, Grammar of Written Mongolian (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1954).
  • For Tibetan, use the system found in Turrell Wylie, “A Standard System of Tibetan Transcription,” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 22 (1959): 261–67.
  • For Russian, use the Library of Congress system.
  • For Sanskrit, use the system found in W. D. Whitney’s Sanskrit Grammar.
  • For Arabic and Turkic, use the system used by the International Journal of Middle East Studies (IJMES) except that, unlike IJMES, we do want diacritics on names of persons, places, and titles of books and articles. However, as always with foreign place names, if there is a fully anglicized name (without diacritics), use it: Baghdad, for example.

Use of Chinese, Japanese, and Korean characters

  • HJAS does not use separate glossaries. Characters should appear where necessary in the body of the text, following the appropriate romanization (if needed). Authors may use simplified or traditional characters as they prefer, maintaining consistency throughout the manuscript. However, citations should use the form of the original source. Please note: Korean uses spaces between characters to distinguish words.
  • Provide characters for a name, term, or title only once, where it is first mentioned, whether that is in the main text or in the notes.
    • For terms that appear more than once in the manuscript, provide romanization as well as character(s) at first usage and thereafter use only the romanization or English translation as appropriate.
    • Characters may be provided after English translations of a direct quote, preferably in the footnote with the citation. But providing romanization is not necessary for such quotations.  
  • For the names of Asian publishers, use romanization without characters. Do not translate the publisher’s name; for example, use “Renmin chubanshe” for 人民出版社, not “People’s Publishing House.”
  • In the case of poetry or other special circumstances, the foreign language (or the romanized transcription of it) may be published side by side with the English translation.

Citation of sources

  • Authors are responsible for providing citations for all works referenced and quoted. Citation information should be sufficiently complete that an interested nonspecialist reader, such as a beginning graduate student, can locate the work online (either to order the work through interlibrary loan or to visit the location to view the work).
  • When citing Asian-language material in the notes, give the following information in this order at the first citation: author’s full name followed by characters (if it is the first usage of the author’s name), then romanized title of the work followed by characters (if it is the first usage of the title) with the publishing information in parentheses. Do not provide English translation in the citation note. Foreign language titles may be translated in the main text and then referred to consistently by either the original or the translated title. Use the following format and as shown in the sample notes:
    • Fei Xiaotong 費孝通, Xiangtu Zhongguo 鄉土中國 (Shanghai: Guancha she, 1948).
  • For Chinese-language historical sources, provide the modern number for the physical volume (ce 册) in the source used as well as the traditional juan 卷 number and the juan-based page number (which is provided across modern editions). See, for example, note 17 in the sample notes.
    • Only use the modern page number (which continues numeration across juan and varies by publisher and edition) if the juan-based page number is not available. See sample note 18.  
  • For archival material, provide the author (where known and not included in the item title), the title or a brief description of the material, the date (whether exact or estimated), record locator, and collection name, as well as the name and geographic location of the archive. If the date is not included in the title (as it is for a letter) place the date in brackets. See sample notes 40–60; also see guidelines provided by the US National Archives.  
  • For all works, including Japanese-language books published in Tokyo, include the place of publication. If the place of publication is unknown, use “n.p.” (see CMS 14.138).
  • For frequently cited works, authors may use an abbreviated form. See notes 14, 17, 18, 20, 29, and 46 in the sample notes below; see also CMS 14.25 and 14.28.
    • Do not use “ibid.,” “idem,” “op. cit.,” or “loc. cit.” (contra CMS 14.29 and 14.30, following CMS 14.31).
  • HJAS no longer uses abbreviations for journal titles in citations. Spell out the full names of all journals in citations, including HJAS.
  • For sources that have a DOI, provide it in the citation, as in sample note 34.
  • When using online resources, the authors must provide the DOI, which is preferred if available, or the URL, along with a date (see especially CMS 14.4–12, 14.167, 14.169, 14.184–85, 14.271).
    • The preferred date is the official publication or print date; if that date is not available, then use the date on which the site was last modified or revised.
    • If no date can be determined from the source, use the date that the material was last accessed.
    • Where applicable, include a Reference Code or search term.
    • See sample notes 33, 34, 38, 39, 44, 47, 48, 53, 55, and 58.
  • Book reviewers should insert into the text all page references to the book(s) under review; use notes for all other references.
  • Authors of articles may, if analyzing one work in detail, insert page numbers to that work in the text. Place all other references in notes.  
  • All quotations must have a citation that specifies the page number of the quoted passage.
  • Do not use “passim” or “ff.” Instead provide specific page numbers.


  • The Journal publishes illustrations that are crucial to understanding an author’s argument if they are of suitable quality. Authors should be aware that only black-and-white or grayscale illustrations are possible in our print version. HJAS publishes color illustrations only in our online version.
  • For the purposes of review, figures—including art work, genealogies, graphs, and the like—may be incorporated into the main manuscript file if they do not make the Word file significantly larger. If the illustrations are numerous or large in size, they should be collected in a single, separate file and submitted as a PDF file. Each figure should have a title and caption.
  • Figure titles appear at the beginning of the caption in bold and with headline capitalization. Figure captions are placed below the figure. Figure captions should explain the content and the point of the figure sufficiently that readers do not need to search in the text for the explanation of the figure’s relevance. Captions also need to include source/citation information.
  • Provide characters for Asian-language terms in the figures and figure captions, regardless of whether they have been used previously in the main text.
  • For the purposes of review, figures do not have to meet our publication specifications. However, during the copyediting stage of production, authors of accepted manuscripts are responsible for submitting files that meet our Technical Specifications Required for Publication of Figures
  • Obtaining permissions to reprint figures is the author’s responsibility. Authors of accepted manuscripts must provide proof of permission during the copyediting stage of publication.


  • For the purposes of review, short tables (of one page or less) may be placed in the main manuscript Word file, or they may be placed with other figures. If one or more tables are longer than one manuscript page, then all the tables should be collected in a file separate from the manuscript text and submitted as a PDF file. Each table should have a title.
  • Table titles are capitalized headline style and are placed above the table. A table’s title should explain the table’s content sufficiently that readers do not need to search in the text for an explanation of the table’s relevance.
  • For the purposes of review, notes to the table should appear as footnotes on the same page and in the same file with the table itself. Sources for a table’s content should appear as a note to the table.
  • Both tables and figures should be included in the same PDF file for the purposes of review.

Permission to reprint or to cite unpublished, unarchived sources

  • It is the responsibility of the author to obtain any necessary permission to reprint previous published material (including their own) and to obtain permission to cite unpublished, unarchived materials, such as a colleague’s unpublished manuscript or personal communication. Dissertations, by contrast, are archived, unpublished sources; thus they do not require permission.
  • Authors must provide proof of permission during the copyediting phase of production.
  • It is the author’s responsibility to include appropriate credit lines for reprinted and unpublished materials.
    • For example: “Reprinted, with permission, from …,” “Courtesy of …,” “From …,” and so on. Copyright holders often specify the credit language that must be used.

Sample citations

The following sample notes are organized by the type of work being cited. There are examples from English, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean in each category. In the category of archival documents and manuscripts, additional language sources are also given as examples.

Books or multivolume series

1 Doi Takeo, The Psychological World of Natsume Soseki, trans. William J. Tyler (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1976), p. 26.

2 James Legge, trans., The Shoo King, vol. 3 of The Chinese Classics, rev. ed. (1893–1895; rpt., Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1960), pp. 449–51.

3 Marriage and Inequality in Chinese Society, ed. Rubie S. Watson and Patricia Buckley Ebrey (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991).

4 John W. Chaffee, The Thorny Gates of Learning in Sung China, 2nd ed. (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995), pp. 30–32, 103–4.

5 Richard L. Davis, Court and Family in Sung China, 960–1279: Bureaucratic Success and Kinship Fortunes for the Shih of Ming-chou (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1986), p. 288n77.

6 Zhu Xi 朱熹, Huian xiansheng Zhu Wengong wenji 晦菴先生朱文公文集, Sibu beiyao edition entitled Zhu zi daquan 朱子大全, 100 juan in 36 vols. (Shanghai: Zhonghua shuju, ca. 1930–1939) [hereafter Zhu zi daquan].

7 Ouyang Xun 歐陽詢 et al., comp., Yiwen leiju 藝文類聚, ed. Wang Shaoying 汪紹楹, 100 juan in 2 vols. (Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe, 1999) [hereafter YWLJ].

8 Wang Zao 汪藻, Fuqi ji 浮溪集, 32 juan; Yingyin wenyuange Siku quanshu edition (Taipei: Taiwan shangwu yinshuguan, 1983) [hereafter, all Siku quanshu editions will be referred to as “SKQS edition”], j. 26, pp. 25b—31b.

9 Tochigi kenshi tsūshi hen 栃木県史通史編, ed. Tochigi kenshi hensan iinkai 栃木県史編さん委員会, 8 vols. (Utsunomiya: Tochigi-ken, 1980–84), v. 3, pp. 598–605; Oyama shishi tsūshi hen 小山市史通史編, ed. Oyama shishi hensan iinkai 小山市史編さん委員会, 3 vols. (Oyama: Oyama-shi, 1984–87), v. 1, pp. 581–603.

10 Sengoku daimyō keifu jinmei jiten 戦国大名系譜人名事典, ed. Yamamoto Takeshi 山本大 and Owada Tetsuo 小和田哲男, 2 vols. (Tokyo: Shin jinbutsu ōraisha, 1985–86).

11 Kurihara Sadako 要原貞子, Dokyumento Hiroshima 24-nen: gendai no kyūsai どきゅめんとヒロシマ24年:現代の救済 (Tokyo: Shakai shinpō, 1970), p. 272.

12 Han-Chung munhwa kyoryu wa nambang haero 韓中文化交流와 南方海路, ed. Cho Yŏngnok曹永祿 (Seoul: Kukhak charyowŏn, 1997).

Chapters or short sections in books or multivolume series

13 Edwin McClellan, “Tōson and the Autobiographical Novel,” in Tradition and Modernization in Japanese Culture, ed. Donald H. Shively (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1971), pp. 347–78.

14 McClellan, “Tōson and the Autobiographical Novel,” p. 350.

15 Tao Jingshen, “The Move to the South and the Reign of Kao-tsung,” in The Cambridge History of China, vol. 5, bk. 1: The Sung Dynasty and Its Precursors, 9071279, ed. Denis Twitchett and Paul Jakov Smith (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009), pp. 674–75.

16 Richard L. Davis, “The Reign of Li-tsung (1224–1264),” in Cambridge History of China, vol. 5, bk 1, pp. 842–43.

This note cites from a new chapter in the same edited volume as in note 15, providing full citation information for the new chapter but using the short version for the edited volume (which does not repeat the names of the editors).

17 Zhu Xi, “Tijia yi” 褅袷議, in Zhu zi daquan, v. 24, j. 69, pp.16a–26a.

This note refers to the work in note 6 by its short version.

18 “Niao bu shang” 鳥部上, in YWLJ, v. 2, j. 90, p. 1560.

This note refers to the work in note 7 by its short version.

19 Yang Shengnan 楊升南, “Lüelun Shangdai de jundui” 略論商代的軍隊 [hereafter “Jundui”], in Jiagutanshi lu 甲骨探史錄, ed. Hu Houxuan 胡厚宣 et al. (Beijing: Shenghuo-Dushu-Xinzhi Sanlian shudian, 1982), pp. 340–99.

20 Yang Shengnan, “Jundui,” p. 343.

21 Liu Yiqing 劉義慶, “Wenxue” 文學, no. 4, in Shishuo xinyu jianshu 世說新語箋疏, ed. Yu Jiaxi 余嘉錫, 2nd ed., 6 juan (each in 2 parts) in 3 vols. (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 2007), v. 1, j. 1B, pp. 223–24.

22 Natsume Sōseki 夏目漱石, “Sorekara” それから in vol. 6 of Sōseki zenshū 漱石全集, rev. ed. (Tokyo: Iwanami shoten, 1994) [hereafter SZ], p. 153.

23 Shimada Atsushi 島田厚, “Sōseki no shisō” 漱石の思想, in Natsume Sōseki 夏目漱石, Nihon bungaku kenkyū shiryō sōsho日本文学研究資料叢書, 3 vols. (Tokyo: Yūseidō, 1980), v. 1, pp. 113–17.

24 Yamauchi Shinji山内晋次, “A Chinese Settlement in Japan from the 11th to the 13th Centuries: An Introduction to ‘Tōbō’ in Hakata,” in Empires, Systems, and Maritime Networks Working Papers: Reconstructing Supra-Regional Histories in Pre-19th Century Asia 帝国・システム・海域ネットワーク:19 世紀以前のアジアにおける広域 地域史の再構築 (in English), vol. 1, ed. Fujita Kayoko 藤田加代子 (Beppu, Japan: 2009–2011 JSPS Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research [B] No. 9045483, March 2010), pp. 27–42.

25 Chŏng Kyubok丁奎福, “Yang Sanbaek chŏn ko” 梁山伯傳攷, in Han-Chung pigyo munhak ŭi yŏn’gu 韓中文學比較의 研究 (Seoul: Koryŏ taehakkyo ch’ulp’anbu, 1987), pp. 198–219, originally published in Chungguk yŏn’gu 중국연구 4 (1979): 33–60.

Book-length works in a book or series

26 Zhao Xuemin 趙學敏, Bencao gangmu shiyi 本草綱目拾遺, 10 juan plus 1 suppl. (n.p.: Jixintang, 1871), in vols. 994–95 of Xuxiu Siku quanshu (Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe, 2002) [hereafter Shiyi], v. 995, j. 7, pp. 69b–71a.

27 Lu Xian 盧憲, Jiading Zhenjiang zhi 嘉定鎮江志 (1842 edition), in Song Yuan difangzhi congshu 宋元地方志叢書, 12 vols. (Taipei: Dahua shuju, 1987), v. 5, j. 16, p. 21b.

28 Lunyu zhuzi suoyin 論語逐字索引, ed. D.C Lau (Liu Dianjue 劉殿爵), 20 juan [hereafter Lunyu], vol. 14 of the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Institute of Chinese Studies, Ancient Chinese Text Concordance Series [hereafter ICS] (Hong Kong: Shangwu yinshuguan, 1995), j. 16, entry no. 13.

29 Shangshu dazhuan zhuzi suoyin 尚書大傳逐字索引, ed. D. C. Lau and He Zhihua 何志華, vol. 5 of ICS, 7 juan (Hong Kong: Shangwu yinshuguan, 1994), j. 6, entry no. 2, p. 28.

This note refers to a different book-length work in the series cited in note 28, so a short version citation of the series is used here.

30 Yūki-shi shinhatto結城氏新法度, in vol. 1 (上) of Chūsei seiji shakai shisō 中世政治社会思想, ed. Ishii Susumu 石井進 et al. (Tokyo: Iwanami shoten, 1972), pp. 252–53.

31 Asakura Takakage jōjō朝倉孝景条々, in Chūsei hōsei shiryō shū 中世法制史料集, ed. Satō Shin’ichi 佐藤進一, Ikeuchi Yoshisuke 池内義資, Momose Kesao 百瀬今朝雄, et al., 7 vols. (Tokyo: Iwanami shoten, 1965–2005), v. 3, p. 343.

32 Ōnin ki 応仁記 in Gunsho ruijū 群書類従, 3rd ed., comp. Hanawa Hokinoichi 塙保己一, 29 vols. (Tokyo: Zoku gunsho ruijū kanseikai, 1959–60), v. 20, pp. 361–62, 397–401.

33 Cho Kyŏngnam 趙慶南, Sinmyo 辛卯, vol. 1 of Nanjung chamnok 亂中雜錄, s.v. “난중잡록(亂中雜錄),” in Han’guk kojŏn chonghap DB 한국고전종합 DB (DB of Korean Classics), comp. Institute for the Translation of Korean Classics (Seoul: Han’guk kojŏn pŏnyŏgwŏn, 2009– ),

Journal articles

34 Allan H. Barr, “The Early Qing Mystery of the Governor’s Stolen Silver,” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 60.2 (2000): 385–412, doi: 10.2307/2652630

35 Yin Zhanhua 尹占华, “Liang Zhu gushi qiyuan yu liuchuan de zai kaocha” 梁祝故事起源与流传的再考察, Qinzhou xueyuan xuebao 钦州学院学报 23.2 (2008): 55.

36 Wada Hidematsu 和田英松, “Koten kōshūka jidai” 古典公衆化時代, Kokugo to kokubungaku 国語と国文学 11.8 (1934): 33–39.

37 Tabata Yasuko 田端泰子, “Kodai, chūsei no ‘ie’ to kazoku: Yōshi, chūshin to shite” 古代・中世の「家」と家族: 養子を中心として, Tachibana joshi daigaku kenkyū kiyō 橘女子大学研究紀要 12 (1985): 41–67.

38 Yu Sŭnghyŏn 劉承炫 and Min Kwandong 閔寬東 “Yang Ch’uk iyagi ŭi kungnae suyong kwa Yang Sanbaek chŏn ŭi pŏnan kanŭngsŏng” 梁祝이야기의 국내 수용과 양 산백전의 번안 가능성, Chung’ŏ Chungmunhak  中語中文學 51 (2012): 59–88,

39 Yoshimura Hiromichi 芳村弘道, “Chosŏnbon hyŏpchu myŏnghyŏn sipch’osi ŭi kich’ojŏk koch’al” 朝鮮本 夾注名賢十抄詩의 基礎的 考察, trans. Sim Kyŏngho 沈慶昊, Hancha hanmun yŏn’gu 漢字漢文硏究 1 (2005): 261–71,

Documents and manuscripts

40 George Macartney to Henry Dundas, 9 November 1793; MS no. IOR/G/12/92, Asia, Pacific, and Africa Collections; British Library, London.

41 United States Embassy, Seoul, to State Department, “Communist Atrocities against Civilians in Seoul,” 19 October 1950; MS no. RG 59, Records of the Department of State, National Archives Building, Washington D.C.

42 Liu Jintang 劉錦堂, “Zou wei Akesu bingbei dao Luo Changhu ligong hou jilao binggu, zhi jie ke chuan, qing zhun you xu jian ci, zhan ji xuanfu shiguan shi” 奏為阿克蘇兵備道羅長祜立功後積勞病故,志節可傳,請准優恤建祠,戰績宣付史館事 [1885; Guangxu 10.4.3]; MS no. 04-01-16-0216-035, Palace Memorial Collection, First Historical Archives of China, Beijing.

43 “Suitong diaocha dongbu Menggu qingxing bing” 隨同調查東部蒙古情形稟 [ca. 1875–1908]; MS no. 153495, Reading Room of Ordinary Old Books, National Library of China, Beijing.

44 Han Xiping shijing houji canshi  漢熹平石經後記殘石,  rubbing from Han-era stele fragment [ca. 1912–1945]; No. TP0970, Harvard-Yenching Library, Harvard University, Cambridge MA, accessed through the Hollis Catalog (no. 9788564) at .

45 Doc. 1019 [1489; Chōkyō 3/Entoku 1/3/1] in Shinpen Saitama kenshi shiryō hen 新編埼玉県史資料編, ed. Saitama-ken 埼玉県, 26 vols. (Urawa: Saitama-ken, 1979–90), v. 5, p. 658.

46 Doc. 1019 in Shinpen Saitama kenshi shiryō hen, v. 5, p. 657.

47 “Shuryō hōan” 狩猟法案: Hearing on Bill dated 28 November 1893 [Meiji 26], Before the House of Peers of the 5th Imperial Diet, Daily Proceedings第五回帝国議会貴族院議事速記録no. 2, at pp. 22-26 (1 December 1893), html.

48 “Sekai jōsei no hendō ni taisho subeki teikoku gaikō shisaku yōkō (an)” 世界情勢ノ變動ニ対對處スベキ帝國外交施策要綱 (案), 9 July 1940; MS no. A-1-0-0-6-1-9, Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs Archive, Tokyo, accessed through Ajia rekishi shiryō sentā アジア歴史資料センター (Japan Center for Asian Historical Records,, Reference Code: B02030010900.

49 “Bunsei shichi kōshin natsu ikoku tenmabune Ōtsuhama e jōriku narabi ni shokizu tō” 文政七甲申夏異国伝馬舩大津浜へ上陸并諸器図等 [ca. 1824]; MS no. 43, Shōrakan Collection 松蘿館文庫, Ibaraki Prefectural Library, Mito.

50 “Okōrikata goyōdome ruijū” 御郡方御用留類従 [1822–26]; MS no. 245, Takahashi Kiyo-ke monjo 高橋キヨ家文書, Ibaraki Prefectural Archives, Mito.

51 Naemubu che-2 kwa 内務部 第二課, “Okku sŏbu surijohap kwan’gye sŏryu” 沃溝西部水利組合關係書類 [ca. 1908–1914]; MS no. 90-0741, National Archives of Korea, Taejŏn.

52 “Songgye chŏlmok, Hadong’gun” 松稧節目, 河東郡 [1800]; MS no. 12329, Kyujanggak Archives, Seoul National University, Seoul.

53 See the daily entry for Kwanghaegun’s 光海君 reign year 14, month 5, day 3, in vol. 2 of 1622 [1622; Kwanghaegun 2/14/5/3], in Chosŏn wangjo sillok 朝鮮王朝實錄, comp. National Institute of Korean History 國史編纂委員會 (Kwach’ŏn, Kyŏnggido: Kuksa p’yŏnch’an wiwŏnhoe, 2006– ),  


54 Gioro Nikan Fusihūn, “Nikan Fusihūn sere gebu šangnaha jalin, kesi de hengkilehe bukdari,” [1786; Qianlong 50.10.12]; MS no. 03-0191-0357-009, Grand Council Copies of Manchu Palace Memorial Collection 滿文錄副奏摺, First Historical Archives of China, Beijing.

55 Leping, “Muwa Gisun” [ca. 1644–1911]; MS no. TMA 5806.09/0622, Rare Book Collection, Harvard-Yenching Library, Harvard University, Cambridge MA,$1i .


56 Murungga to Gelegsengge, 17 March 1928; MS no. 7-1-18-49, Central Historical Archives of the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party, Ulaanbaatar, Republic of Mongolia.

57 “Yeke Mingγan qosiγu-yin γaǰarun ǰiruγ” [ca. 1907]; MS no. 780, Mongolian Map Collection, East Asia Department, Staatsbibliothek, Berlin.


58 “Sku gsum gtan la dbab pa” [ca. 1800–1900]; MS no. PP 23-6, Oriental Collection: Manuscripts, The Royal Library, Copenhagen, (title given as “sKu gsum bstan la dbab pa”).


59 “Bhāratāmṛtam of Divakara” [early 16th century]; MS nos. R-3717 and R-3002, Government Oriental Manuscripts Library, University of Madras, Chennai, Tamil Nadu.


60 Muḥammad ibn Jarīr al-Ṭabarī (839–923), Ta’rīkh al-rusul wa al-mulūk (Annales quos scripsit Abu Djafar Mohammed ibn Djarir at-Tabari), ed. M. J. de Goeje, 15 vols. (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1879–1901), v. 1, p. 272.


Last updated April 2017