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Style Sheet

Download Style Sheet

Download requirements for figures and tables

Submitting a manuscript

Submit 2–4 files: 

  • an MS Word file with the text and notes (with citations) in HJAS style, 
  • an MS Word file with the title and an English abstract of 120–150 words,
  • an optional PDF file with all tables and figures,
  • a cover letter, which is optional unless your manuscript exceeds 15,000 words.   

Ordinarily, manuscripts (the main text and notes) should not exceed 15,000 words; manuscripts longer than 15,000 words will be considered, but length becomes an explicit review criterion, and authors are required to explain why this length is necessary in a cover letter. Notes should not exceed 25 percent of the manuscript. Collect all tables and figures (images, bar graphs, maps, and the like) in a single, separate PDF file. See further instructions on the HJAS website. 


  • Do not include your name or any acknowledgments in the submission. If you cite your own work do not refer to it as “my” work in the submitted manuscript. (This anonymity is for review purposes; in the final article, we encourage authors to use “my” in reference to their own work and authors are allowed to include a brief acknowledgment note.)
  • Everything—text, notes, and block quotations—must be double-spaced. 
  • Do not justify the right margin. 
  • Do not insert two spaces between sentences.
  • Paginate the manuscript but avoid using any other running header or footer. 
  • Margins should be at least one inch wide all around. For notes and text, use font size 12. 
  • The preferred English font is Times New Roman.  
  • Do not use automatic hyphenation. 
  • Notes should be footnotes. Citations are provided in notes (citation format is described below). Do not use author-date citation style and do not provide a bibliography or reference list. 
  • Avoid long footnotes; HJAS will not publish footnotes that exceed the main text on the page.
  • Do not number headings and subheadings. Do not begin the manuscript with a heading (such as “Introduction”). Keep headings brief (preferably under 50 text characters and spaces).
  • Do use block quotes, tables, and figures where they support your argument, but limit the overall number of each.  

General style

  • In matters of English-language style, HJAS generally follows the rules set out in the Chicago Manual of Style Online (17th edition) [hereafter CMS] and the spellings in the current online Merriam-Webster Dictionary. However, for East Asian languages and materials, we privilege the following guides over CMS. For Japanese, we use the current Monumenta Nipponica style guide. For Chinese, we use Endymion Wilkinson, Chinese History: A Manual, 4th ed. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015); see especially pp. xvii–xxiii.
  • Authors are encouraged to consult the most recent issues of HJAS for models of current house style. 

House style

  • Use American spellings (color, judgment, councilor, adviser). 
  • Provide conversion of indigenous weights and measures to the metric system (kilograms, meters), though you may also add conversion to the American system (pounds, feet).
  • When the names of authors change over time (whether due to preference, marriage, divorce, or changes in romanization), use the author’s preferred name (insofar as it can be determined) in the main text, but in the notes, provide the name as given on the title page of the work. Alternate names should usually be provided in square brackets so that readers may find other works by the same author. (See below for the application of this rule to Asian names.)  
  • Use a serial comma before “and” in a series, as in: China, Japan, and Korea.
  • Use present tense to refer to the contents of a written work: “In his sixteenth-century report, the author says…” (per CMS 5.129, category 2: “timeless facts, such as… works of the past that are still extant or enduring”).
  • Note the difference in capitalization (per Merriam Webster) for the following related terms: sinograph, Sinicization, sinicize, sinology, Sinification. 
  • Observe the distinction between the nonrestrictive “which” and restrictive “that,” as well as between “while” meaning “during the time when” and “although” (per CMS 5.250 under “that; which” and “while”).  
  • Put a noun after “this” and “these” to specify the antecedent (cf. CMS 5.28).
  • Do not speak of yourself in the third person and avoid passive-voice constructions (“according to the argument of the present author”); instead, use first person and active voice (“I argue”). Note that HJAS house style prefers “I argue” over “this article argues.”
  • Do not use the following abbreviations: e.g., et seq., etc., ff., ibid, i.e., or op. cit. Instead, use phrases such as “for example,” “and the like,” or “in other words.” 
  • Abbreviate inclusive numbers (except for years), using an en-dash (–) for the range (per CMS 9.61): 
    • If the first number in the sequence is 1–99, 100, or multiples of 100, then use all digits for the second number in the sequence (such as, 3–10, 96–117, 1100–1113). 
    • If the first number in the sequence is 101–9, 201–9, and so on, use the changed part only for the ending number in the sequence (for example, 101–8, 808–33). 
    • If the first number in the sequence is 110–99, 210–88, and so forth, then use two or more digits unless more digits are needed to include all changed parts (for instance, 321–28, 498–532, 1087–89, 1496–500, 12991–3001). 
  • For year sequences, use all digits: 1275–1286, 220 BCE–200 CE, 220–210 BCE.
  • Spell out the numbers one through one hundred, as well as round numbers for hundreds and sometimes thousands (but not, say, 150 or 3400), except when combined with “percent,” when numbers appear frequently within a paragraph, and when citing sources. Thus: “twentieth century” but “chapter 3.” 
  • Use an en-dash, not a hyphen, to mean “to” (per CMS 6.78), as in “Ming–Qing transition.” 
  • Avoid use of “contemporary” or “current” when referring to historical events; instead use “contemporaneous” not only for things and actions but also people (contra CMS 5.250). 
  • Do not use biased terms. For example, instead of “Oriental” use “Asian”; instead of “man” use “person,” “humans,” or “people”; instead of “manpower” use “labor.” Such terms may be used in direct quotations of earlier works, with appropriate context provided, or official titles (such as the Oriental Institute in Prague, or the Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies). See CMS 5.251–5. 260 for recommendations on bias-free language.
  • Italicize names of scriptures and sacred works in book-length sources, including the Heart Sūtra, the Hebrew Bible, the Bible, the Buddhist Canon, and the Five Classics (contra CMS 8.103).

Romanization of Asian languages

  • Italicize Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and other foreign-language terms, words, or phrases that have not been anglicized (except for proper names and place names) each time that they occur.
  • Following convention, the Journal will accept variation in the romanization of individual personal names and prefers the use of such well-established exceptions as “Taipei” and “Seoul.” (However, the names of emperors should follow regional style guides.) Note that the romanization preferences of authors with ethnic Asian heritage who publish in English should be honored. HJAS-preferred romanizations (such as pinyin) should only be provided (in square brackets) when their Asian-language work is cited. For example: 
    • Ping-ti Ho, Studies on the Population of China, 1368–1953 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1959).
    • Ho Ping-ti [He Bingdi] 何炳棣, Ming chu yijiang renkou ji qi xiangguan wenti, 1368–1953 明初以降人口及其相关问题, 1368–1953, trans. Ge Jiangxiong 葛剑雄 (Beijing: Shenghuo-Dushu-Xinzhi Sanlian shudian, 1989). 
  • Use Asian order for personal names (surname first) when referring to authors of works written in Chinese, Japanese, or Korean; and English order for personal names (surname last) when referring to authors of English-language materials.
  • Capitalize each word of the English translations of Chinese institutions but not their pinyin names (per Wilkinson, p. xviii). Thus, 华东师范大学 is East China Normal University and Huadong shifan daxue. Also, when two proper names appear one after another, the second proper name starts with a capital letter. Thus the title 文淵閣四庫全書 is Wenyuan ge Siku quanshu (the Wenyuan ge edition of the Siku quanshu) and the Institute of History and Philology at the Academia Sinica is Zhongyang yanjiuyuan Lishi yuyan yanjiusuo 中央研究院歷史語言研究所.
  • For Chinese, use pinyin throughout the manuscript (other than names as discussed above), following standard rules. Please note that hyphenation is rarely used in pinyin and that the pinyin for a single concept is spelled without spacing even if it uses two or more characters: quanguo 全国, yanjiushengyuan 研究生院. 
  • For Japanese, use the modified Hepburn system of romanization in Kenkyūsha’s New Japanese-English Dictionary, with the following qualifications. 
    • Use macrons to represent long vowels, except for fully anglicized words (shogun, daimyo) and the names of Japan’s main islands and principal cities (Tokyo, Kyoto, Osaka, Hokkaido, Kyushu, Honshu; but Kantō, Tōhoku). Note that Ryukyu is a fully anglicized word, so it takes no macrons (for the islands, language, people, or kingdom). However, a long “i” should be romanized with a double “i” rather than a macron: kōhii, not kōhī.
    • Use “n” rather than “m” to replace the Japanese syllable “ん/ン.” For newspapers, write shinbun, not shimbun
    • Only include an apostrophe after an “n” when the “n” is followed by a vowel that is a separate syllable, as in “Koizumi Jun’ichirō.” Do not use apostrophes otherwise.
  • For Korean, use the McCune-Reischauer romanization consistently, except for fully anglicized words and place names (hangul, kimchi, Pyongyang). 
  • For Manchu, use the Möllendorff system in P. G. von Möllendorff, A Manchu Grammar (Shanghai: American Presbyterian Mission Press, 1892), and in Jerry Norman, A Comprehensive Manchu-English Dictionary (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2013).
  • For Mongolian, use the system found in A. Mostaert, “Index des mots du Mongol écrit et du Mongol ancien,” in Dictionnaire Ordos: A-Ž, tables alphabétiques (New York: Johnson Reprint Corporation, 1968), pp. 769–809, and in Nicholas Poppe, Grammar of Written Mongolian (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1954). 
  • For Tibetan, use the system found in Turrell Wylie, “A Standard System of Tibetan Transcription,” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 22 (1959): 261–67. 
  • For Russian, use the Library of Congress system.
  • For Sanskrit, use the system found in W. D. Whitney’s Sanskrit Grammar. Note that many Sanskrit Buddhist terms are now fully anglicized (sutra, dharma, Mahayana). Provide diacritics on proper names that are not fully anglicized (Śākyamuni). 
  • For Arabic and Turkic, use the system used by the International Journal of Middle East Studies (IJMES) except that, unlike IJMES, we do want diacritics on names of persons, places, and titles of books and articles. However, as always with foreign place names, if there is a fully anglicized name (without diacritics), use it: Baghdad, for example.

Use of Chinese, Japanese, and Korean Graphs

  • The preferred Chinese font is PMingLiU, Japanese MS Mincho, Korean Batang. Note that most other Korean fonts show as blank boxes in our files, so if this problem arises, we will return the manuscript and ask the author to change all the Korean graphs (hangul and hancha) to Batang prior to any review.
  • HJAS does not provide separate glossaries. Graphs should appear in the body of the text, following the appropriate romanization. Authors may use simplified or traditional characters as they prefer, maintaining consistency throughout the main text, tables, and figure captions. In the notes, however, use simplified or traditional characters for a citation based on the usage in the original source. Note that Korean uses spaces between graphs to distinguish words.
  • Provide characters for a name, term, or title only once, where it is first mentioned, whether that is in the main text or in the notes.
    • For terms that appear more than once in the manuscript, provide romanization as well as character(s) at first usage and thereafter use only the romanization or English translation as appropriate.
    • Characters are not required after English translations of a direct quote longer than two or three words but may be included as appropriate, preferably in the footnote with the citation. Providing romanization is not necessary for lengthy quotations.  
  • For Asian publishers’ names, use romanization without characters. Do not translate the publisher’s name; for example, use “Renmin chubanshe” for 人民出版社, not “People’s Publishing House.” 
  • In the case of poetry or other special circumstances, the foreign language (or the romanized transcription of it) may be published side by side with the English translation. 

Citation of sources

  • The guiding principle for HJAS citation style is that nonspecialist readers interested in following up on any specific citation (such as beginning graduate students) must be able to find the quoted or referenced passage in the work and must have sufficient information to locate and access the source material (either through interlibrary loan or an in-person visit). 
  • Authors are responsible for providing citations for all works referenced and quoted. All quotations must have a citation that specifies the page number of the quoted passage. When referring to a larger debate or reflecting on the state of a field, authors should provide an exemplary citation so nonspecialist readers have an entry point to that body of literature. 
    • Do not use “passim” or “ff.” Instead provide specific page numbers.
  • If several sentences in a row require citation to the same page of the same source, place the citation at the end of the first sentence. 
  • “Personal communication” citations require the written permission of the person being cited.
  • When citing Asian-language material in the notes, give the following information in this order at the first citation: author’s full name followed by characters (if it is the first usage of the author’s name), then romanized title of the work followed by characters (if it is the first usage of the title) with the publishing information in parentheses. Do not provide English translation in the citation note. Foreign language titles may be translated in the main text and then referred to consistently by either the original or the translated title. Use the format as shown here and in the sample notes: 
    • Fei Xiaotong 費孝通, Xiangtu Zhongguo 鄉土中國 (Shanghai: Guancha she, 1948). 
  • For Chinese-language historical sources, provide the modern number for the physical volume (ce 册) in the source used as well as the traditional juan 卷 number and the juan-based page number (which is consistent across modern editions). Even for classical works, such as the Shijing 詩經, provide complete citations to specific editions. See, for example, sample note 18. 
    • Only use the modern page number (which continues numeration across juan and varies by publisher and edition) if the juan-based page number is not available. See sample note 20a.  
  • Similarly, for Korean- and Japanese-language material, use the Asian-language term for “volume” (such as kwŏn or maki), when appropriate, and provide the character at first usage. See sample notes 27, 28, 35, and 56. 
  • When citing modern editions of often-reprinted classical works, HJAS prefers editions that are considered standard in the specialized field. For example, we prefer Zhonghua shuju editions and the Scripta Sinica collection offered online by Academia Sinica—which are now widely accessible, given current standards in print and digital publication—and we discourage citation of Sibu congkan, which is more difficult to access. Moreover, following their own recommendation, we discourage citations of classical sources on  
  • For archival material, provide the author (where known), the title or a brief description of the material, the date (whether exact or estimated), record locator, and collection name, as well as the name and geographic location of the archive. If the date is not included in the title, place the date in brackets. In addition to this information, if the archival material is available online, also provide a URL. See sample notes 45–65; also see guidelines provided by the US National Archives.  
  • For sources that are difficult to locate, provide a URL to a library or archive catalog. 
  • For all works, including Japanese-language books published in Tokyo, include the place of publication. If the place of publication is unknown, use “n.p.” (see CMS 14.132).
  • For works cited more than once, use a short-form citation. See sample notes 17, 19, 22, 51, and 58; see also CMS 14.30 and 14.33. For works cited four or more times, authors may specify and use a nonstandard abbreviated form. See sample notes 18, 29, and 31.
    • Do not use “ibid,” “idem,” “op. cit.,” or “loc. cit.”
  • HJAS no longer uses abbreviations for journal titles in citations. Spell out the full names of all journals in citations, including HJAS.
  • When using online resources, the authors must provide the DOI, which is preferred, or the stable URL, along with a date (see especially CMS 14.6–13, 14.161, 14.205–210, 14.213, 14.267). 
    • The preferred date is the official publication or print date; if that date is not available, then use the date on which the site was last modified or revised. 
    • If no date is given on the website, use the date that the material was last accessed. 
    • Where applicable, include a Reference Code or search (s.v.) term. 
    • See sample notes 7b, 20b, 28, 36, 37, 42, 48, 49, 52, 53, 57, 58, 60, 62, and 63.
  • Book reviewers should insert into the main text all page references to the book(s) under review; use notes for all other references. 
  • Authors of articles may, if analyzing one work in detail, insert page numbers to that work in the main text. Place all other references in notes.


  • The Journal publishes figures that are crucial to understanding an author’s argument if they are of suitable quality. Please keep the total number of figures limited. Authors should be aware that only black-and-white or grayscale illustrations are possible in our print version. HJAS publishes color illustrations only in our online version. 
  • Provide characters for Asian-language terms in the figures and figure captions, regardless of whether they have been used previously in the main text. 
  • For the purposes of review, figures—including art illustrations, genealogies, maps, and the like—should be collected (together with the tables) in a single, separate PDF file. Below each figure provide a number, title, caption, and source. There should be a callout to each figure (by number) in the main text. 
  • For the purposes of review, figures do not have to meet our publication specifications. However, during the copyediting stage of production, authors of accepted manuscripts are responsible for submitting illustration files that meet all our substantive, legal, stylistic, and technical requirements (see the HJAS Requirements for Publication of Figures and Tables). Figures that do not meet these requirements will not be published.
  • Obtaining permissions to reprint figures and paying any reprint fees are the author’s responsibility. Authors of accepted manuscripts must provide proof of permission during the copyediting stage. 


  • The Journal publishes tables that facilitate understanding an author’s argument. Tables can often provide large amounts of information more clearly and concisely than prose (see examples in the HJAS Requirements for Publication of Figures and Tables). Please keep the total number of tables limited.
  • For the purposes of review, all tables should be collected (together with the figures) in a single, separate PDF file. Above each table provide a number and title; use footnotes to the table to explain terms and source citations. There should be a callout to each table (by number) in the main text. 
  • As with figures, any necessary permissions for tables must be provided during the copyediting stage.

Permission to reprint or to cite unpublished, unarchived sources

  • It is the responsibility of the author to obtain any necessary permission to reprint previously published material (including their own) and to obtain permission to cite unpublished, unarchived materials, such as a colleague’s unpublished manuscript or personal communication. In the case of extensive direct quotation from an unpublished manuscript or a citation of personal communication, we require written documentation of permission. Note that dissertations are archived, unpublished sources; thus, they do not require permission.
  • Authors must provide proof of all permissions during the copyediting phase of production. 
  • It is the author’s responsibility to include appropriate credit lines for reprinted and unpublished materials. Copyright holders often specify the credit language that must be used. See the HJAS Requirements for Publication of Figures and Tables.

Sample citations

The following sample notes are organized by the type of work being cited. There are examples from English, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean sources in each category. In the category of archival documents and manuscripts, additional language sources are also given as examples. 

Books or multivolume series

1 Takeo Doi, The Psychological World of Natsume Soseki, trans. William J. Tyler (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1976), p. 26. 

     The author’s name is in English order (Doi is the surname) because the work is in English.  

2 James Legge, trans., The Shoo King, vol. 3 of The Chinese Classics, rev. ed. (1893–1895; rpt., Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1960), pp. 449–51. 

     HJAS style generally places the title first for an edited or translated volume (as in n. 3), but when editors, translators, or compilers are so closely associated with a particular version of the text—as Legge is in this example—then they may be listed before the title.

3 Marriage and Inequality in Chinese Society, ed. Rubie S. Watson and Patricia Buckley Ebrey (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991). 

4 John W. Chaffee, The Thorny Gates of Learning in Sung China, 2nd ed. (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995), pp. 30–32, 103–4.

5 Richard L. Davis, Court and Family in Sung China, 960–1279: Bureaucratic Success and Kinship Fortunes for the Shih of Ming-chou (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1986), p. 288n77. 

6 Luo Yuming 駱玉明, Jianming Zhongguo wenxue shi 簡明中國文學史 (Shanghai: Fudan daxue chubanshe, 2004). 

7a Ouyang Xun 歐陽詢 et al., comp., Yiwen leiju 藝文類聚, 2nd ed., edited by Wang Shaoying 汪紹楹, 100 juan 卷 in 2 vols. (Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe, 1999).

     This work is an example where HJAS recommends using expanding digital resources. We would prefer to cite this work as below in n. 7b than as above in n. 7a:

7b Ouyang Xun 歐陽詢, comp., Yiwen leiju 藝文類聚, 100 juan in 16 vols. (n.p.: Wang Yuanzhen 王元貞, 1587), available online at$1i

8 Zhuang Yifu 莊一拂, Gudian xiqu cunmu huikao 古典戲曲存目彙考, 3 vols. (Shang¬hai: Shanghai guji chubanshe, 1982), v. 3, pp. 1145–60.  

9 Tochigi-kenshi tsūshihen 栃木県史通史編, ed. Tochigi-kenshi hensan iinkai 栃木県史編さん委員会, 8 vols. (Utsunomiya: Tochigi-ken, 1980–84), v. 3, pp. 598–605; Oyama-shishi tsūshihen 小山市史通史編, ed. Oyama-shishi hensan iinkai 小山市史編さん委員会, 3 vols. (Oyama: Oyama-shi, 1984–87), v. 1, pp. 581–603.

10 Sengoku daimyō keifu jinmei jiten 戦国大名系譜人名事典, ed. Yamamoto Takeshi 山本大 and Owada Tetsuo 小和田哲男, 2 vols. (Tokyo: Shin jinbutsu ōraisha, 1985–86).

11 Kurihara Sadako 要原貞子, Dokyumento Hiroshima 24-nen: gendai no kyūsai どきゅめんとヒロシマ24年:現代の救済 (Tokyo: Shakai shinpō, 1970), p. 272.

12 Han-Chung munhwa kyoryu wa nambang haero 韓中文化交流와 南方海路, ed. Cho Yŏngnok曹永祿 (Seoul: Kukhak charyowŏn, 1997).

13 Ch’oe Hyŏnbae 崔鉉培, Han’gŭl kal 한글갈 (Kyŏngsŏng: Chŏngŭmsa, 1940), p. 119.

14 Cho Chiman 조지만, Chosŏn sidae ŭi hyŏngsapŏp: Tae Myŏngnyul kwa Kukchŏn 조선시대의 형사법: 대명률과 국전 (Seoul: Kyŏngin munhwasa, 2007), pp. 31–56.

Chapters or short sections in books or multivolume series

15 Edwin McClellan, “Tōson and the Autobiographical Novel,” in Tradition and Modernization in Japanese Culture, ed. Donald H. Shively (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1971), p. 352. 

16 Jingshen Tao, “The Move to the South and the Reign of Kao-tsung,” in The Cambridge History of China, vol. 5, bk. 1: The Sung Dynasty and Its Precursors, 907–1279, ed. Denis Twitchett and Paul Jakov Smith (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009), pp. 674–75.

17 Richard L. Davis, “The Reign of Li-tsung (1224–1264),” in Cambridge History of China, vol. 5, bk 1, pp. 842–43.

     This example cites from a new chapter in the same edited volume as in n. 16, providing full citation information for the new chapter but using the short version for the edited volume (which does not repeat the names of the editors).

18 “Gufeng” 谷風 [Mao no. 35], in Maoshi zhengyi 毛詩正義, annot. Zheng Xuan 鄭玄 and Kong Yingda 孔穎達, 20 juan 卷, in Chongkan Songben Shisanjing zhushu fu jiaokan ji 重刊宋本十三經注疏附校勘記, ed. Ruan Yuan 阮元, 8 vols. (1815; rpt., Taipei: Yiwen yinshuguan, 1965) [hereafter Shisan¬jing zhushu], v. 2, j. 2, p. 90a.

19 “Junzi yu yi” 君子于役 [Mao no. 66], in Maoshi zhengyi, v. 2, j. 6, p. 149a. 

     This example refers to the work in note 18 by its short version.

20a “Niao bu shang” 鳥部上, in Ouyang Xun, Yiwen leiju, v. 2, j. 90, volume-consecutive page [hereafter vol-p.] 1560. 

     This example refers to the work in note 7a (a form we discourage) by its short version. Above in n. 20a we show how to indicate volume-consecutive pagination from a modern edition (another form we discourage). Below in n. 20b is the preferred juan-based pagination for the form of the work in n. 7b, along with a URL to the exact digital sequence (seq.). Note that although the juan is the same, the volume numbers are different in the two editions.   

20b “Niao bu shang” 鳥部上, in Ouyang Xun, Yiwen leiju, v. 15, j. 90, p. 1a (seq. 2422),$2422i

21 Liu Yiqing 劉義慶, “Wenxue” 文學, no. 4, in Shishuo xinyu jianshu 世說新語箋疏, ed. Yu Jiaxi 余嘉錫, 2nd ed., 6 juan (each in 2 parts) in 3 vols. (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 2007), v. 1, j.1B, p. 223.

22 Natsume Sōseki 夏目漱石, “Sorekara” それから in vol. 6 of Sōseki zenshū 漱石全集, rev. ed. (Tokyo: Iwanami shoten, 1994), p. 153. 

     The short form is: Natsume Sōseki, “Sorekara,” p. 153.

23 Shimada Atsushi 島田厚, “Sōseki no shisō” 漱石の思想, in Natsume Sōseki 夏目漱石, Nihon bungaku kenkyū shiryō sōsho日本文学研究資料叢書, 3 vols. (Tokyo: Yūseidō, 1980), v. 1, p. 116. 

24 Yamauchi Shinji山内晋次, “A Chinese Settlement in Japan from the 11th to the 13th Centuries: An Introduction to ‘Tōbō’ in Hakata” (in English), in Empires, Systems, and Maritime Networks Working Papers: Reconstructing Supra-Regional Histories in Pre-19th Century Asia 帝国・システム・海域ネットワーク:19 世紀以前のアジアにおける広域 地域史の再構築, vol. 1, ed. Fujita Kayoko 藤田加代子 (Beppu, Japan: 2009–2011 JSPS Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research [B] No. 9045483, March 2010), pp. 27–42. 

25 Chŏng Kyubok丁奎福, “Yang Sanbaek chŏn ko” 梁山伯傳攷, in Han-Chung pigyo munhak ŭi yŏn’gu 韓中文學比較의 研究 (Seoul: Koryŏ taehakkyo ch’ulp’anbu, 1987), pp. 198–219, originally published in Chungguk yŏn’gu 중국연구 4 (1979): 33–60.

26 Chi Tuhwan 지두환, “Chosŏn hugi yangmyŏnghak ŭi suyong kwa chŏn’gae” 조선후기 양명학의 수용과 전개, in Chosŏn sidae sasangsa ŭi chaejomyŏng 조선시대 사상사의 재조명 (Seoul: Yŏksa munhwa, 1998), p. 378.

27 Ch’oe Hang 崔恒, “Pallyu” 跋類 in “Kyŏngsŏ Sohak kugyŏl pal” 經書小學口訣跋, in T’aehŏjŏng chip 太虛亭集, 3 kwŏn 卷, in vol. 9 of Yŏngin p’yojŏm Han’guk munjip ch’onggan 영인표점 한국문집총간 (Seoul: Minjok munhwa ch’ujinhoe, 1988), k. 2, pp. 3b–4b (vol-p. 202).

28 Yi Sanhae 李山海, “Ŏnhae Sohak pal” 諺解小學跋 (1588), in Agye yugo 鵝溪遺稾, 6 kwŏn, in Han’guk kojŏn chonghap DB [한국고전종합 DB] (Seoul: Han’guk kojŏn pŏnyŏgwŏn, 2016), k. 5, p. 53a,….

     Compare this 2019 citation with the 2014 citation in note 36. The database structure has completely changed, so the URL at n. 36 no longer works—hence, the necessity of full citation information. 

Book-length works in a book or series

29 Zhao Xuemin 趙學敏, Bencao gangmu shiyi 本草綱目拾遺, 10 juan plus 1 suppl. (n.p.: Jixintang, 1871) [hereafter Shiyi], in vols. 994–95 of Xuxiu Siku quanshu 續修四庫全書 (Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe, 2002), v. 995, j. 7, pp. 69b–71a.

30 Lu Xian 盧憲, Jiading Zhenjiang zhi 嘉定鎮江志 (1842 edition), 22 juan, in vol. 5 of Song Yuan difangzhi congshu 宋元地方志叢書 (Taipei: Dahua shuju, 1980), j. 16, p. 21b.

31 See the preface (xu 序) to Liji zhushu 禮記注疏, annot. Zheng Xuan and Kong Yingda, 63 juan, in Shisanjing zhushu, v. 5, prefatory materials, pp. 3a–b.

     This note refers to a new book-length work (Liji zhushu) in the same source (Chongkan Songben Shisanjing zhushu fu jiaokan ji) cited in full in note 18, so the full version is used for Liji zhushu and the specified abbreviated version is used for Shisanjing zhushu

32 Yūki-shi shinhatto結城氏新法度, in vol. 1 (上) of Chūsei seiji shakai shisō 中世政治社会思想, ed. Ishii Susumu 石井進 et al. (Tokyo: Iwanami shoten, 1972), pp. 252–53.

33 Asakura Takakage jōjō朝倉孝景条々, in Chūsei hōsei shiryō shū 中世法制史料集, ed. Satō Shin’ichi 佐藤進一, Ikeuchi Yoshisuke 池内義資, Momose Kesao 百瀬今朝雄, et al., 7 vols. (Tokyo: Iwanami shoten, 1965–2005), v. 3, p. 343.

34 Ōnin ki 応仁記 in Gunsho ruijū 群書類従, 3rd ed., comp. Hanawa Hokinoichi 塙保己一, 29 vols. (Tokyo: Zoku gunsho ruijū kanseikai, 1959–60), v. 20, pp. 361–62, 397–401.

35 Nŭngŏmgyŏng ŏnhae 楞嚴經諺解 [1461], in Yŏkchu Nŭngŏmgyŏng ŏnhae 역주능엄경언해, 10 kwŏn 卷 in 5 vols. (Seoul: Sejong taewang kinyŏm saŏphoe, 1996–1998), v. 1, k. 1, p. 6.

36 Cho Kyŏngnam 趙慶南, Sinmyo 辛卯 [1591], vol. 1 of Nanjung chamnok 亂中雜錄, s.v. “난중잡록 (亂中雜錄),” in Han’guk kojŏn chonghap DB 한국고전종합 DB (DB of Korean Classics), comp. Institute for the Translation of Korean Classics (Seoul: Han’guk kojŏn pŏnyŏgwŏn, 2009– ),

     Compare this 2014 citation with the 2019 citation in note 28. The database structure has completely changed, so this URL no longer works. A reader needs the regular citation information provided above in order to search for this work at the main database page ( Hence, a URL alone is not sufficient for online works. 

Journal articles

37 Allan H. Barr, “The Early Qing Mystery of the Governor’s Stolen Silver,” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 60.2 (2000): 385–412, doi: 10.2307/2652630. 

38 Yin Zhanhua 尹占华, “Liang Zhu gushi qiyuan yu liuchuan de zaikaocha” 梁祝故事起源与流传的再考察, Qinzhou xueyuan xuebao 钦州学院学报 23.2 (2008): 55.

39 Liu Chiung-yun [Liu Qiongyun] 劉瓊云, “Qingchu Qianzhong lu li de shenti, shengqing yu zhongchen jiyi” 清初《千忠錄》裡的身體、聲情與忠臣記憶, Xiju yanjiu 戲劇研究, no. 17 (2016): 1–39.

40 Wada Hidematsu 和田英松, “Koten kōshūka jidai” 古典公衆化時代, Kokugo to kokubungaku 国語と国文学 11.8 (1934): 33–39. 

41 Tabata Yasuko 田端泰子, “Kodai, chūsei no ‘ie’ to kazoku: Yōshi, chūshin to shite” 古代・中世の「家」と家族: 養子を中心として, Tachibana joshi daigaku kenkyū kiyō 橘女子大学研究紀要 12 (1985): 41–67.

42 Yu Sŭnghyŏn 劉承炫 and Min Kwandong 閔寬東 “Yang Ch’uk iyagi ŭi kungnae suyong kwa Yang Sanbaek chŏn ŭi pŏnan kanŭngsŏng” 梁祝이야기의 국내 수용과 양 산백전의 번안 가능성, Chung’ŏ Chungmunhak 中語中文學 51 (2012): 59–88,

43 Pyun, Yung-tai (Pyŏn Yŏngt’ae 변영태), trans., “The Analects of Confucius,” 亞細亞硏究 [Asea yŏn’gu] Journal of Asiatic Studies 2 (1959): 227–305.

44 Paek Tuhyŏn 백두현, “Yŏngnam chiyŏk kugŏsa charyo ŭi yŏn’gu sŏngkwa wa yŏn’gu panghyang” 영남지역 국어사 자료의 연구성과와 연구방향, Ŏmun nonch’ong 어문론총 59 (2013): 24.

Documents and manuscripts

45 George Macartney to Henry Dundas, 9 November 1793; MS no. IOR/G/12/92, Asia, Pacific, and Africa Collections; British Library, London.

46 United States Embassy, Seoul, to State Department, “Communist Atrocities against Civilians in Seoul,” 19 October 1950; MS no. RG 59, Records of the Department of State, US National Archives Building, Washington D.C.

47 Li Yu 李玉, “Dachai” 打差, Scene no. 22 from Wanli yuan 萬里圓, [undated MS]; MS no. 33705, Rare Ancient Books Collection 善本古籍部, National Library of China 中国国家图书馆, Beijing. 

48 Intelligence report, 20 November 1939; MS no. 002-080200-00519-160, President Chiang Kai-shek Collection 蔣中正總統文物, Academia Historica 國史館, Taipei,

49 Han Xiping shijing houji canshi  漢熹平石經後記殘石,  rubbing from Han-era stele fragment [ca. 1912–1945]; No. TP0970, Harvard-Yenching Library, Harvard University, Cambridge MA,

50 Zhenguan zhengyao 貞觀政要 [1277–1278]; MS no. 503-21, Imperial House Library 図書寮文庫   Collection, Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō 宮内庁), Tokyo, available online at  

51 Doc. 1019 [1489; Chōkyō 3/Entoku 1/3/1] in Shinpen Saitama-kenshi shiryōhen 新編埼玉県史資料編, ed. Saitama-ken 埼玉県, 26 vols. (Urawa: Saitama-ken, 1979–90), v. 5, p. 658.

     The short form is: Doc. 1019 in Shinpen Saitama-kenshi, v. 5, p. 657.

52 “Shuryō hōan” 狩猟法案: Hearing on Bill dated 28 November 1893 [Meiji 26], Before the House of Peers of the 5th Imperial Diet, Daily Proceedings第五回帝国議会貴族院議事速記録no. 2, at pp. 22-26 (1 December 1893),

53 “Sekai jōsei no hendō ni taisho subeki teikoku gaikō shisaku yōkō (an)” 世界情勢ノ變動ニ対對處スベキ帝國外交施策要綱 (案), 9 July 1940; MS no. A-1-0-0-6-1-9, Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs Archive, Tokyo, accessed through Ajia rekishi shiryō sentā アジア歴史資料センター (Japan Center for Asian Historical Records,, Reference Code: B02030010900

54 “Bunsei shichi kōshin natsu ikoku tenmabune Ōtsuhama e jōriku narabi ni shokizu tō” 文政七甲申夏異国伝馬舩大津浜へ上陸并諸器図等 [ca. 1824]; MS no. 43, Shōrakan Collection 松蘿館文庫, Ibaraki Prefectural Library, Mito, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan.

55 Naemubu che-2 kwa 内務部 第二課, “Okku sŏbu surijohap kwan’gye sŏryu” 沃溝西部水利組合關係書類 [ca. 1908–1914]; MS no. 90-0741, National Archives of Korea 국가기록원, Taejŏn, South Korea. 

56 Tae Myŏngnyul chikhae 大明律直解 [seventeenth-century xylographic imprint of 1395 edition], 30 kwŏn in 4 vols., v. 2, k. 6, p. 2a; No. 古 5130-11, Kyujanggak Archive 규장각, Seoul National University 서울대학교, Seoul.

57 See the daily entry for Sejong’s 世宗 reign year 26, month 2, day 29 (kyŏngja 庚子) [1444; Sejong 26/02/20 (kyŏngja)] in Chosŏn wangjo sillok 朝鮮王朝實錄, comp. National  Institute of Korean History 國史編纂委員會 (Kwach’ŏn, Kyŏnggido: Kuksa p’yŏnch’an wiwŏnhoe, 2006– ) [hereafter Sillok],

58 T’aejong 1 太宗 [1401]/08/22 (muin 戊寅) in Sillok,

     This example shows the abbreviated form for a different Sillok entry appearing after note 57. 

59 Gioro Nikan Fusihūn, “Nikan Fusihūn sere gebu šangnaha jalin, kesi de hengkilehe bukdari,” [1786; Qianlong 50.10.12]; MS no. 03-0191-0357-009, Grand Council Copies of Manchu Palace Memorial Collection 軍機處滿文錄副奏摺, First Historical Archives of China 中国第一历史档案馆, Beijing.

60 Leping, “Muwa Gisun” [ca. 1644–1911]; MS no. TMA 5806.09/0622, Rare Book Collection, Harvard-Yenching Library, Harvard University, Cambridge MA,$1i

61 Murungga to Gelegsengge, 17 March 1928; MS no. 7-1-18-49, Mongol Ardyn Khuv’sgalt Namyn Arkhiv (Central Historical Archives of the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party), Ulaanbaatar, Republic of Mongolia. 

62 “Yeke Mingγan qosiγu-yin γaǰarun ǰiruγ” (Karte des Banners der Yeke Mingghan [Nonni-Tal, Heilungkiang]), map of the Yeke Mingghan banners (Nonni Valley, Heilongjiang) [1907]; Catalog no. 780, Mongolische Landkarten Collection, Ostasienabteilung (East Asia Department), Staatsbibliothek, Berlin,

63 “Sku gsum gtan la dbab pa” [ca. 1800–1900]; MS no. PP 23-6, Orientalsk Samling (Oriental collection), Det Kongelig Bibliotek (The Royal Danish Library), Copenhagen, (title given as “sKu gsum bstan la dbab pa”). 

64 “Bhāratāmṛtam of Divakara” [early 16th century]; MS nos. R-3717 and R-3002, Government Oriental Manuscripts Library, University of Madras, Chennai, Tamil Nadu.

65 Muḥammad ibn Jarīr al-Ṭabarī (839–923), Ta’rīkh al-rusul wa al-mulūk (Annales quos scripsit Abu Djafar Mohammed ibn Djarir at-Tabari), ed. M. J. de Goeje, 15 vols. (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1879–1901), v. 1, p. 272.


Last updated October 2021